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Internet Sites:

• Taking Responsibility for Ending Social Promotion: A Guide for Educators and State & Local Leaders
This 72-page guidebook is designed to help schools find ways to end social promotion – the common but harmful practice of promoting students to the next grade level when those students are not prepared academically. The guidebook answers questions such as: What is social promotion, how widespread is it, and what are the costs to students and society?

• Ending Social Promotion: Early Lessons Learned (October, 2000)
The U.S. Department of Education and the Council of Great City Schools convened on May 16, 2000 in Washington, D. C., a conference of leaders from school districts and states which have been implementing policies to end social promotion. This report provides a short summary of the proceedings. (Available in pdf)

• When Students Don’t Succeed: Shedding Light on Grade Retention (1999)
“This booklet reviews the research and conventional wisdom concerning retention and promotion, and includes an exploration of alternative practices that can be used to prevent failure and improve a student’s chances for successful remediation.” Provided by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

• Ending Social Promotion
This Education Week article examines retention and social promotion, and includes links to related online resources.

• Failing Children–Twice
Education Week Online examines the issue of retention. Bracey and Gordon critique the overuse of retention and its failure to produce positive educational outcomes.

• Position Statement: Grade Retention & Social Promotion
From the National Association of School Psychologists.

• Alternatives to Social Promotion and Grade Retention
Includes an overview of the issues, a bibliography of publications and articles, and a collection of Internet resources. There are also examples of retention/promotion policies in several states. Provided by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory.

• Should My Child Repeat a Grade?
Includes information on why children are held back, how repeating a grade effects a child, and offers a few suggestions for parents. From the National Association of School Psychologists.

• ERIC Digest – Retention and Social Promotion: Research and Implications for Policy (2001)

• ERIC Digest – When Retention Is Recommended, What Should Parents Do? (1997)